village Roads India have been developed in India for the last 5000 years. Ashoka and Chandragupta were the first who made attempts to construct roads in ancient time. Mughals founded the main base for constructing good roads. It was in Mughal rule when more number of roads were constructed. Since then roads have been playing an important role in Indian economy.
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Road Transport in India:–
A good road network is the basic necessity of every country. A good road network is required for the rapid development of the society. Road transport has many more advantages than other transport routes.
Let’s have a look at the benefits of road transport India :-
1) Roads play a vital role in transporting goods and Commercial Needs for short and long distance.
2) Road transport is quite flexible than railways. Road transport vehicles can reach every corner of the country. Vehicles can be stopped at any place for unloading and loading goods as well as for carrying Consignments.
3) Road transport easily connects with villages, factories, farms, different markets and even reach the door.
4) Roads can also be laid on hilly areas where as it is almost impossible to lay railway tracks there.
5) Household needs like vegetables, fruits, medicines can be transported more easily through road transport.
6) It is cheaper to construct roads than railway tracks and airways.
India has one of the largest road network in the world , of around 33.14 lakh km which consists of National Highways(NHs), State Highways(SHs), Major District roads(MDRs), Rural Roads(RRs) including other district roads and village roads .
Since Independence government has taken major steps and planned accordingly to modernize roads and increase its area every day. Let’s look at the different plans involved for the betterment of roads.
Nagpur Plan Road Transport :–
A twenty year plan was initiated in 1943 in the meeting of Chief Engineers from various parts of the country at Nagpur to strengthen transport of India . Under this plan kilometres of major roads were increased to 1,96,800 km and other roads to 3,32,800 km by 1953. The main aim of this plan was that no village in developed agricultural region should be more away than 8 km from a major road or 3km from away from other road.
Twenty Year Plan Road Transport :–
A Twenty year plan was initiated in 1961 after the successful completion of Nagpur Plan. Its aim wad decide to increase road length from 6.56 lakh km to 10.60 lakh km by 1981.
Other objectives of this plan were:-
Every village roads in developed agricultural area should be near to 6.4 km of a metalled road.
Villages in semi developed area should be within range of 12.8 km of metalled road.
Undeveloped and uncultivated villages should be within range of 19.2 km of metalled road.
Rural Development PlanRoad Transport :-
The aim of this plan was to connect villages having a population of 1500 or more with all weather roads and that having less than 1500 with link roads under various programmes like Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Jawahar Rojgar Yojana (JRY) and Command Area Development (CAD).
Build Operate Transfer :-
This is scheme is the regarded as one of the best scheme announced by Indian government. Under this scheme a private firm is invited and allowed to build good quality roads at their expense. After constructing the roads they are allowed to collect tax from the road transporters and passenger for fixed amount of time to recover their expense and gain profit. After that they transfer the roads to the government. The National Highways Act has been amended to facilitate private investment in construction under BOT scheme.
Central Road Fund (CRF) is raised for the maintaining and constructing new roads. From June 2, 1998 excise duty of 1.50 RS per liter is imposed on petrol and from February 28, 1999 same duty was imposed on High Speed Diesel (HSD) under CRF act. Government collects around 5,500 crores through this taxes.
In 2000 Central Road Fund Act was enacted in December 2000 with objective to provide regular and sufficient amount of fund for the betterment of roads.
The act gives Center government the authority to administer, maintain, and release fund for the following:-
For the development for rural roads.
Developing and maintain National Highways.
Constructing under/over bridges and safety gates at railway crossings.
Developing and maintaining state roads.
Classification of roads India :–
Under the Nagpur Plan roads in India were classified in four categories :-
National HighwaysIndia :-
This roads are constructed and maintained by Central Public Works Department (CPWD). These are roads are interconnected with states, big cities, ports, railway junctions, and connect border roads.
The length of National Highways was 19,811 km in 1951 and reached 33,650 km in 1991 and 49,585 km in 1999.
National highway are running across the country from north to south and east to west connecting all important places. List of some major national highways is given below:-
National Highway 1: Connecting Delhi and Amritsar
National Highway 2: Connecting Delhi and Kolkata
National Highway 3: Connecting Agra and Mumbai via Gwalior, Indore and Nasik
National Highway 4: Connecting Thane and Chennai
National Highway 5: Connecting Bahargagora and Chennai
National Highway 6: Connecting Dhule and Kolkata
National Highway 7 (The Longest One): Varanasi to Kanniyakumari via Jabalpur, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Madurai.
State HighwaysIndia :-
The construction and maintenance of this roads is done by state government. These roads join the capital of states with major district headquarters and other cities. These roads have direct connection to National Highways. The length of state highways was 56,765 km in 1971 and it was 1,37,950 km in 1999. Means in three decades the length of state highways was more than double.
Central Road Fund of 2000 provides amount of about 1,000 crore to state government for the development of this roads.
State highways are unevenly distributed among the states. Maharashtra had the longest state highways 33,223 km in 1999, next was Gujarat with 19,796 km, Madhya Pradesh with 11,780 km, Rajasthan with 10,047 km. Smallest states like Goa, Mizoram, Sikkim, Nagaland, Tripura etc have less than 500km length of State highways.
District RoadwaysIndia :-
These roads are well connected in between districts of state. They connect cities and different market & production center to National highways. Zila Parishads has the responsibility of developing and maintaining district roads. Length of district roadways has increased up to more than four and half times from 1951 to 1999.
Village RoadsIndia :-
Village roadsconnectsdifferent villages to main neighboring cities and town. These are the responsibilities of village panchayats. These roads are generally of low quality as the traffic is less in village areas. These roads generally become useless during monsoon season.
From recent years efforts have been made to connect village roads with metalled roads. The length of these roads was 2,06,408 km in 1951 which has increased to 10,28,410 km in 1999 which means length of these roads has increased five times.
Still about 10 percent of village having population of 1000 or more and 60 percent villages having population of less than 1000 is not connected with all weather roads.
Central government launched a scheme named Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna (PMGSY) was in December 2000. This scheme was focused on connecting unconnected villages with less than 500 population to the State Highways or National Highways by the end of Tenth Plan period.
These government schemes and funds has benefited the country through various years. Much development had been made in the road transportation sector. Most of the villages are now connected to major cities where they can easily go and sell their agriculture produce.
The connection between different states had ease the road transportation which boosts the Indian economic through transferring of different raw materials, factory produce, etc. It has become easy for the normal people to travel different locations which can be more hectic through railways.
Besides the above major classified roads there are more roads whose consideration were taken later:-
Border Roads India :–
Border Roads Organisation Board was set up in 1960 whose work was to accelerate the economic development and to strengthen defense activities by connecting important roads and thus increase north east India transportation.
International Highways India:–
International roads connect India with neighbouring countries. These roads are funded by World Bank. Some of the major International Highways are :
Lahore-Mandalay (Myanmar) route passing through Amritsar-Delhi-Agra-Kolkata-Golaghat-Imphal
Problems and Prospects in Road Development:-
Transport in India has developed to a great extent but still it faces some problems. The growing population and traffic in India always add demand of constructing more roads. Heavy haulingof large vehicles have also been issue in maintenance of roads. Heavy hauling reduces the strength of the roads.The road length of India 75.01 km per 100 sq km area is very low compared to 294.6 km of Japan, 131.2km of Austria, 451.8 km of Belgium, 147.2 km of France and many more developed countries. Another problem in road construction is the surface level in India is uneven and unsurfaced. It takes a lot of labour to level the surface.
About 20 percent of National Highways need to be widened from single to double lanes and 70 percent of two lane roads need to be converted into Expressways. The main challenge in road sector is to prepare all weather roads connecting each village with State or National Highways. The roads in village areas need to be strengthened for carrying large volumes of agricultural products to the city areas. And all these need more funds allocation to the development and maintenance schemes.
One more factor to grow more road construction is rapidly increasing vehicle number and eCommerce. The roads have failed to meet the increase in vehicles. This gives more traffic jams, delays, deterioration of roads. The number of vehicles is going increase more rapidly in near future and we need roads which can ease the flow of traffic and play an important role in development of country.
Village roads transport Development India nhai schemes types of roadways Public frequently asked questions (FAQs) :-
What effect does industry or industrialization have in common public life ?
The industrialization has a major impact on society and people have to look forward to some changes in the country. Based on the public interest in the industry, profits and employment go higher. It increased in urbanization and people moved to an urban center in search development. On-road transportation, certain development has been establishing towards society help. Economic developments also have taken in the industrial revolution. It brought up significant social changes among public interest on industrialization. Revolution has brought up to consider significant changes in road transport on industry sides. Workers get paid and take advantages in mass production of goods.
What and how many bad business impact of poor transportation service?
Due to poor transportation services, many businesses greatly affected. Shifting goods to consume place affected due to poor road transportation. It involves a huge number of things to keep in mind and production will below. For controlling this situation, poor transportation needs to overcome as quickly as possible. It increases sufficient roads in rural areas tend to increase production. For agriculture input and markets, road transportation is a must. So, poor transportation must solve by taking proper measurements. Especially in rural areas, transportation is important to carry out many things smoothly. So, the government has to take proper steps to avoid this misconception and do the best for promoting road transportation.
What is the Government of India policy best suited for doing business?
Recently, the Indian government led by Narendra Modi is focusing more on a broad world of an endless number of emerging startups. For achieving this, the Indian government is creating new opportunities and programs. They help companies in both nurturing and innovation. There are many initiatives taken by the Indian government to support new entrepreneurship. It also aims to foster the civilization of creativity among Indian youngsters. With an exceptional and huge statistic benefit, India can raise and improve business individually and make the occupations for the benefit of this nation and also the world. Every step is taken to enable the prosperity and growth of the country.
What do companies in India have problems with multi-state trade payable Geographical diversity?
Ethnic, cultural, racial, gender and other kinds of identities determine how people know, see and experience the world. Individuals from diverse environments think, react and learn differently. It is difficult for multistate business companies in India while trying to understand their employees. Most significantly, geographic diversity will lead to a lack of unity within the organization. If properly harnessed, geographic diversity can provide in holistic and multi-dimensional perspective to the acumen and wisdom within the multistate business companies. The companies in India do not have more problems with the multi-state trade payable Geographical diversity. It is because the process is a little bit simple.
What is there an efficient goods commercial vehicle available in India as expected?
Transition in India become more realistic with the current government has sustained and massive push on electric mobility. The government’s think-tank – NITI Aayog has been spearheading transition for increasing the zero-emission mode of transportation. Multi-Axle Trucks (MATs) are considered as the efficient goods commercial vehicle available in India and widely used with for industrial transportation. These vehicles mainly range from 26.2 ton to 49-ton vehicles gross weight. Sales of these vehicles have been jumped between 2009 and 2010 as 55% higher. Goods commercial vehicle has been massively improved on the highest standard level 60% of the overall commercial vehicle market have been massively improved.
What is heavy haulage Oversize ODC transportation a simple task in India?
ODC, otherwise called over-dimensional cargo is added entirely outside of a deck of the vehicles for shifting the over-sized goods. Both the length and height of cargo are larger than the standard vehicles. These heavy cargos are used in both domestic and commercial sectors. ODC transport in India can help people to shift their heavy goods from one location to the next one quickly. It is because these vehicles are well-equipped with many modern devices. They are capable of transporting heavyweight goods over long distances. The transport service provider has sufficient experience in this sector, so the team makes the overall transportation process hassle-free.
What is the diversity in logistics or transportation costs in India?
The Indian transportation sector is very large and diverse. It has been carrying out a major solution to undergo road transportation. For shifting goods and products, road transportation is very must and involves good actions. It has lots of results and the majority of imports rely on on-road transportation. Also, the costs of transportation in India are affordable and depend on business size. It works from the publication that makes the average population time for transport needs. So, get it based on the diversity in logistics and transportation costs is limited to the business sectors.
What is the level of customers class in the development of Indian Industrial Market?
Customer segmentation is nothing but a practice of dividing a customer into a group. It has been carrying out with the majority of things relevant to marketing. Thus, it plays an important role in meeting overall interests and spending habits. So, it termed to evaluate the specific ways organize with marketing needs.
Millions of Indian population has the biggest range of the base class. It is also considered high due to Indian market range. It involves middle class, richest, and below-average base class. It has overflowing wealth value and sometimes involves in extremely poor condition. Checking the database also reveals the big Indian base class.
What and how much contribution of the present government has been successful in promoting Indian trade business ?
Industry experts mainly state that Government requires to endure the stepping on spending more on the particular sectors. With the Current Government is concentrating on various factors such as education, infrastructure, healthcare, connectivity and more. All these are major aspects that revive the growth with declining economic growth. There are hundreds of entrepreneurs as well as start-ups in the manufacturing sectors have been improved with the economy. Government has initiated certain measures for reviving the economy with spurring growth. India responds to the need for manufacturing as well as other service sectors then 80% of the GDP gets to improve.
What are the major business problems in India?
Since the time immemorial Indians have been promoting peace. The business has massively improved to the peak level but there are also some problems that most of the business faces. Whether it is related to government, crimes by ‘godmen’, condition of roads, corruption, or any others, the business gets affected in certain circumstances. Corruption is the worst endemic that is widely spread in India so it is important to be handled wisely and quickly. Though our country needs several changes at present below are some of the important things that we need to consider for tackling immediately.
· Education system
· Basic Hygiene
· Healthcare system
· Women’s safety
What are the disadvantages of the transportation business ?
Here are the demerits of the transportation business as follow:
Road transportation in India is risky. Necessary security measures never made against road accidents.
Many roads in India are inadequate and also available in bad shape. There are just 34 km long roads per every 100 sq.km area.
It is another disadvantage of the road transportation business. The tax burden per vehicle in this country is Rs. 3500.
Poor road maintenance
Roads in India are not properly maintained. There is only 0.1% of national earning is invested in road maintenance in India.
Rising diesel and petrol cost
The operational amount of road transport is rising continuously.
Not suitable for bulky goods
It is unsuitable for heavy goods.
What are the advantages of the transportation service business ?
The road transportation involves a majority of things to help workers, students, and people to travel securely. It involves less cost and safety for everyone. Other than that, it easily delivers enough goods on time via road transport. It is more applicable for business to carry out major benefits in road transport. Goods and products delivered at the right location within the limited time duration. It involves lots of flexibility in operation and cheaper as well. For import and export business, road transportation is must and more appropriate for a short distance or long distance. It deserves the right platform to carry out major goods delivered at the right time.
How many types of transportation are used in India?
With the rapid urbanization in India, the Economic growth of the country has also improved. Transport system mainly has been improved into distinct modes such as notably road transport, railways, inland water transport, airports, and airlines, coastal shipping and many more. Roadways are the dominant means of transporting carrying about 85% of the total traffic generated in the country. India has about 191.7 million registered vehicles and Compound Annual Growth Rate from total Registered Motor Vehicles in India has been improved to 94%. With the increase in the number of vehicles on roads, it also paves a way for the development of business.
What is Logistic and what works ?
Logistics is broadly used to refer to a process of moving resources including equipment, products, materials, and inventory from one place to next one at the targeted destination. This term is used in numerous applications. There are different kinds of logistics services available but road transportation gets more fame among business professionals. It is because if business products or material cannot reach the customers, it will fail. It is the right place when road transportation plays a vital role. It also impacts many other aspects of businesses. If the products are shipping to your customers on time, it will increase the profitability of a company.
What are the meaning and use of a company or industry in reality ?
Company or industry, in reality, is an entity that especially engages the business. The company could be structured across many numbers of ways. A company could be a corporation, sole proprietorship or under the partnership. Based on the different company that you are dealing with, it could be owned by a single person or even a group of individuals. The company could be well structured under many circumstances. Liability is an important type of company that is especially assumed. Company or industry in India has a major growth with the improvements in modern technology and transportation facilities all over the country.
उपरोक्त जानकारी हमारे अथक प्रयास और अत्यधिक कठिन प्रयत्नों द्वारा अर्जित की गई है ।निवेदन द्वारा सूचित किया जाता है इसे चुराकर असंवैधानिक कृत्य और अपराध न करे । यदि किसी को इससे समस्या हो तो वह स्वखोज हेतु स्वतंत्र है । यदि कोई जनहित जानकारी साझा करना चाहे तो उसकी लेखनी को सम्मान दिया जायेगा ।